For the latest news from Scotland see our ScotNews feed at:

Electric Scotland News

34th edition of the Scottish Weekendte, Belgium
Frij 13, Sat 14 & Sun 15 September 2019

Visit their web site at:


Temperatures reaching 31 degrees Celsius combined with overnight lows near 21 degrees Celsius are expected for the next 3 to 5 days.

First heat event of the season beginning today as I write this newsletter...

Hot and humid air is expected to arrive over Southwestern Ontario today, and will likely persist through the Canada Day long weekend.

Afternoon temperatures will reach the low thirties, with overnight lows in the low twenties throughout the period. Afternoon humidex values near 40 are expected as the weekend progresses.

Very warm and humid air, with higher than average temperatures may persist well into next week.


The risks are greater for young children, pregnant women, older adults, people with chronic illnesses and people working or exercising outdoors.


You can view a video introduction to this newsletter at:

Scottish News from this weeks newspapers
Note that this is a selection and more can be read in our ScotNews feed on our index page where we list news from the past 1-2 weeks. I am partly doing this to build an archive of modern news from and about Scotland as all the newsletters are archived and also indexed on Google and other search engines. I might also add that in newspapers such as the Guardian, Scotsman, Courier, etc. you will find many comments which can be just as interesting as the news story itself and of course you can also add your own comments if you wish.

City or Symbol?
Dundee and perils of regeneration

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How I learned to stop worrying and love nuclear power
To stop the global climate crisis, we need emissions-free energy more than ever and for all its risks, atomic power seems like a necessary evil

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Build us a supermarket
Primary school pupils in Glasgow have become award-winning filmmakers as part of a campaign for a supermarket to serve their community.

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Auditors criticise pensions body over failed IT project
Audit Scotland said the SPPA had not applied enough scrutiny to Capita's bid and now had a 23m gap in its budgets.

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Alphabet unveils Toronto smart city master plan details
Alphabet on Monday released details of a proposed smart city development for Toronto, outlining plans in a 1,500 page document.

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UK's F35 stealth jets fly first operational missions
The UK's most advanced and expensive fighter jets have been used on operational missions for the first time.

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Britain and America are at their best when they work together
Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher understood that our strength lay in people not governments

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How trade can help rebalance the post-Brexit economy
Free ports and opportunity zones can help power Britain's post-Brexit growth

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Blocking No Deal is easier said than done
Stating your willingness to block No Deal is one thing. Actually doing so is another matter

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The next Prime Minister needs a Chancellor who will defy the Treasury factory of Remain
Brexiteers see it as a factory of Remain spewing anti-Brexit bile from the midst of Government and in dire need of change.

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The right post-Brexit trade and investment policy can rebalance economic disparity across UK regions
It is almost inevitable that Brexit will lead to a marked change to the UK’s current approach to international trade and investment, with the government having an exciting opportunity to construct an independent set of policies.

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Why a logbook at Scotland’s most remote youth hostel remains so special after 40 years
As strange as this might seem, the log kept at Loch Ossian Youth Hostel, in the Highland wilderness near Corrour, has been going for more than 40 years and continues to grow.

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Devastating increase in Scotland's suicide rate
The NHS Information Services Division (ISD) said there were 784 probable suicides in Scotland in 2018 - up from 680 in 2017.

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Taking stock at Holyrood after 20 years
Three years on from the Brexit vote, 20 years on from the dawn of devolution, less than two years out from the sixth Holyrood election: and as the academic year draws to a close, it's time for stock-taking.

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The EU’s tech tax plan is flimsy, ill-judged and legally dubious
The next Chancellor must do away with the pointless, distortionary Digital Services Tax

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I was suspected of causing my child's illness
Her daughter was taken into foster care and the family was not reunited until a year later when the case was dropped.

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More voters want to quit the EU now than at the time of Brexit referendum
MORE voters want Britain to quit the EU now than at the time of Brexit referendum, a fresh poll has revealed.

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The EU Viet Nam free trade agreement
This week the EU has signed a new agreement with Viet Nam. There has been no debate in Parliament about it, and the UK has no right to reject it or to require improvements and amendments.

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UK discovers 26 billion in statistics review
Britain’s economy is around 1.3% larger than previously thought - a gain of 26 billion - statisticians said on Thursday after a major revision of growth data from the past 20 years.

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Electric Canadian

The Canadian Horticulturist
Volume 32 (1909) can be read at:

Canadian Archaeology
By Stanley C. Bagg, F.N.S. (1864) (pdf) which you can read at:

A Canadian Bank Clerk
By J. P. Buschlen (1913) (pdf) which you can read at:

Canadians of Italian descent don’t need Trudeau’s apology
Added this to our Italy page and the article can be viewed at:

The Canadian Builder
Practical Paper Devoted to all Branches of the Building Trades Volume 1 Issue 2 which can be read at:

See our Magazine page to get a link to 43 other issues.

The Canadian Commonwealth
By Agnes C. Laut (1915) (pdf) and can be read at:

Canadian Portraits
C.B.C. Broadcasts Edited by R. G. Riddell (1940)

The history of a pioneer community offers a rich field to the biographer, for by its very nature the frontier attracts unique and progressive individuals. The exacting demands of a new country can be met only by men and women with initiative and originality. The pioneer is a man who ventures out on an uncharted course, and who stakes his future on his ability to adapt himself to new and strange conditions of life.

The portraits which have been sketched in this volume are drawn from three hundred years of Canadian history. They are the stories of men who, as successive generations have pressed on towards new frontiers of settlement, have built their lives into the very foundations of the -country. To the beginnings of civilization in Canada they have brought the rare qualities of the pioneer—strength of character, courage, the ability to improvise, confidence in the future. In the life of each one of them the spirit of adventure was ever-present, leading always to new experiments and fresh discoveries.

These biographies were prepared originally as radio talks, and they were presented in a series arranged by the radio committee of the Canadian Historical Association for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. The subjects were selected from many different periods in Canadian history, and from the whole length and breadth of the country. They represent also a wide variety of ability and interest, and the list includes explorers, politicans, scientists, artists, teachers, a lumber king, a judge, a village bard. Many familiar names are missing for the purpose of the series was to tell new stories rather than repeat old ones. The subjects are therefore men whose fame has been less generally known, but who hold an undisputed place in the company of great Canadians.

This can be read at:

Electric Scotland

Scotland's Highlands
Came across this half hour video and thought I'd share it with you. The next day I found another 3 videos in the series so have added these as well.

You can watch these in our Community at:

James Inwick
Ploughman and Elder by P. Hay Hunter (1896) (pdf)

It also contains a Glossary for all the broad Scots words used in it.

You can read this at:

The General Grievances and Oppression of the Isles of Orkney and Shetland
By Mr. James MacKenzie (1836) (pdf). How Orkney and Shetland came under Scottish control and you can read this at:

Pagan Scotland
A BBC audio recording.

You can listen to this at:

Scotland in Pagan Times
Christian and pagan burial.--Viking burials.--Northern burials and hoards.--The Celtic art of the pagan period.--The architecture of the brochs.--The brochs and their contents.--Lake dwellings, hill-forts, and earth-houses.

Also added a link to a Time Team Dig - Season 13, Episode 13 - Scotch Broch (Applecross, Scotland)

Read more about this at:

The Pagent of the Forth
By Stewart Dick with twenty-four illustrations in colour by Scottish Artists (1911) (pdf) which you can read at:

Historical Account of the Family of Hay of Leys
A small pdf book I discovered which I added a link to on our Clan Hay page at:

The History of the House of Seytoun
To the year 1559 by Sir Richard Maitland of Lethington with the Continuation by Alexander Viscount Kingston to 1687 (1828) (pdf)

You can read this on our Clan Seton page at:

John Hay
Author and Statesman by Lorenzo Sears (1914) (pdf) which can be read at:

Abraham Lincoln
A 10 volume biography of him that I've added to our Robert Burns Lives! page about him which can be read at:

I discovered this history due to reading the above book about John Hay and added this to our Scots in America section at:

A GENERATION born since Abraham Lincoln died has already reached manhood and womanhood.

Yet there are millions still living who sympathized with him in his noble aspirations, who labored with him in his toilsome life, and whose hearts were saddened by his tragic death. It is the almost unbroken testimony of his contemporaries that by virtue of certain high traits of character, in certain momentous lines of purpose and achievement, he was incomparably the greatest man of his time. The deliberate judgment of those who knew him has hardened into tradition; for although but twenty-five years have passed since he fell by the bullet of the assassin, the tradition is already complete. The voice of hostile faction is silent, or unheeded; even criticism is gentle and timid. If history had said its last word, if no more were to be known of him than is already written, his fame, however lacking in definite outline, however distorted by fable, would survive undiminished to the latest generations. The blessings of an enfranchised race would forever hail him as their liberator; the nation would acknowledge him as the mighty counselor whose patient courage and wisdom saved the life of the republic in its darkest hour; and illuminating his proud eminence as an orator, statesman, and ruler, there would forever shine around his memory the halo of that tender humanity and Christian charity in which he walked among his fellow countrymen as their familiar companion and friend.

It is not, therefore, with any thought of adding materially to his already accomplished renown that we have written the work which we now offer to our fellow-citizens. But each age owes to its successors the truth in regard to its own annals. The young men who have been born since Sumter was fired on have a right to all their elders know of the important events they came too late to share in. The life and fame of Lincoln will not have their legitimate effect of instruction and example unless the circumstances among which he lived and found his opportunities are placed in their true light before the men who never saw him.

To write the life of this great American in such a way as to show his relations to the times in which he moved, the stupendous issues he controlled, the remarkable men by whom he was surrounded, has been the purpose which the authors have diligently pursued for many years. We can say nothing of the result of our labor; only those who have been similarly employed can appreciate the sense of inadequate performance with which we regard what we have accomplished. We claim for our work that we have devoted to it twenty years of almost unremitting assiduity; that we have neglected no means in our power to ascertain the truth; that we have rejected no authentic facts essential to a candid story; that we have had no theory to establish, no personal grudge to gratify, no unavowed objects to subserve. We have aimed to write a sufficiently full and absolutely honest history of a great man and a great time; and although we take it for granted that we have made mistakes, that we have fallen into such errors and inaccuracies as are unavoidable in so large a work, we claim there is not a line in all these volumes dictated by malice or unfairness.

Our desire to have this work placed under the eyes of the greatest possible number of readers induced us to accept the generous offer of “The Century Magazine” to print it first in that periodical. In this way it received, as we expected, the intelligent criticism of a very large number of readers, thoroughly informed in regard to the events narrated, and we have derived the greatest advantage from the suggestions and corrections which have been elicited during the serial publication, which began in November, 1886, and closed early in 1890. We beg, here, to make our sincere acknowledgments to the hundreds of friendly critics who have furnished us with valuable information.

As “The Century” had already given, during several years, a considerable portion of its pages to the elucidation and discussion of the battles and campaigns of the civil war, it was the opinion of its editor, in which we coincided, that it was not advisable to print in the magazine the full narrative sketch of the war which we had prepared. We omitted also a large number of chapters which, although essential to a history of the time, and directly connected with the life of Mr. Lincoln, were still episodical in their nature, and were perhaps not indispensable to a comprehension of the principal events of his administration. These are all included in the present volumes; they comprise additional chapters almost equal in extent and fully equal in interest to those which have already been printed in “The Century.” Interspersed throughout the work in their proper connection and sequence, and containing some of the most important of Mr. Lincoln’s letters, they lend breadth and unity to the historical drama.

We trust it will not be regarded as presumptuous if we say a word in relation to the facilities we have enjoyed and the methods we have used in the preparation of this work. We knew Mr. Lincoln intimately before his election to the Presidency. We came from Illinois to Washington with him, and remained at his side and in his service—separately or together—until the day of his death. We were the daily and nightly witnesses of the incidents, the anxieties, the fears, and the hopes which pervaded the Executive Mansion and the National Capital. The President’s correspondence, both official and private, passed through our hands; he gave us his full confidence. We had personal acquaintance and daily official intercourse with Cabinet Officers, Members of Congress, Governors, and Military and Naval Officers of all grades, whose affairs brought them to the White House. It was during these years of the war that we formed the design of writing this history and began to prepare for it. President Lincoln gave it his sanction and promised his cordial cooperation. After several years’ residence in Europe, we returned to this country and began the execution of our long-cherished plan. Mr. Robert T. Lincoln gave into our keeping all the official and private papers and manuscripts in his possession, to which we have added all the material we could acquire by industry or by purchase. It is with the advantage, therefore, of a wide personal acquaintance with ah the leading participants of the war, and of perfect familiarity with the manuscript material, and also with the assistance of the vast bulk of printed records and treatises which have accumulated since 1865, that we have prosecuted this work to its close.

If we gained nothing else by our long association with Mr. Lincoln we hope at least that we acquired from him the habit of judging men and events with candor and impartiality. The material placed in our hands was unexampled in value and fullness; we have felt the obligation of using it with perfect fairness. We have striven to be equally just to friends and to adversaries; where the facts favor our enemies we have recorded them ungrudgingly; where they bear severely upon statesmen and generals whom we have loved and honored we have not scrupled to set them forth, at the risk of being accused of coldness and ingratitude to those with whom we have lived on terms of intimate friendship. The recollection of these friendships will always be to us a source of pride and joy; but in this book we have known no allegiance but to the truth. We have in no case relied upon our own memory of the events narrated, though they may have passed under our own eyes; we have seen too often the danger of such a reliance in the reminiscences of others. We have trusted only our diaries and memoranda of the moment,- and in the documents and reports we have cited we have used incessant care to secure authenticity. So far as possible, every story has been traced to its source, and every document read in the official record or the original manuscript.

We are aware of the prejudice which exists against a book written by two persons, but we feel that in our case the disadvantages of collaboration are reduced to the minimum. Our experiences, our observations, our material, have been for twenty years not merely homogeneous—they have been identical. Our plans were made with thorough concert; our studies of the subject were carried on together; we were able to work simultaneously without danger of repetition or conflict. The apportionment of our separate tasks has been dictated purely by convenience; the division of topics between us has been sometimes for long periods, sometimes almost for alternate chapters. Each has written an equal portion of the work; while consultation and joint revision have been continuous, the text of each remains substantially unaltered. It is in the fullest sense, and in every part, a joint work. We each assume responsibility, not only for the whole, but for all the details, and whatever credit or blame the public may award our labors is equally due to both.

We commend the result of so many years of research and diligence to all our countrymen, North and South, in the hope that it may do something to secure a truthful history of the great struggle which displayed on both sides the highest qualities of American manhood, and may contribute in some measure to the growth and maintenance throughout all our borders of that spirit of freedom and nationality for which Abraham Lincoln lived and died.

The Name of Gordon
Patronymics that it has replaced or supplemented collated by J. M. Bulloch (1906) (pdf).

I wish every clan would do a book like this and you can read it at:

The Story

20 Things You Had No Idea Were Invented in Canada

1. Peanut butter
Although American agricultural pioneer George Washington Carver is often credited for inventing peanut butter, the first patent for the spreadable substance was actually given to Montreal’s Marcellus Gilmore Edson in 1884. He came up with the process of milling roasted peanuts to create “a consistency like that of butter,” which he promoted as a protein substitute for those who couldn’t have solid food. Schoolchildren everywhere are forever grateful.

Canadian filmmakers Graeme Ferguson and Roman Kroitor first pioneered the technology of high-resolution images on huge screens at Montreal’s Expo ’67. With businessman Robert Kerr and engineer William Shaw, they founded Multi-Screen Corporation, which later became IMAX (short for “Image Maximum”). The first permanent IMAX theater, the Cinesphere, opened in Toronto’s Ontario Place in 1971. Originally used for science films and documentaries, IMAX was bought in 1994 by an American company, who turned it into a Hollywood powerhouse. Its headquarters remain in Toronto.

3. Goalie mask
Hockey itself may have actually originated in England. But the hockey mask, which has helped keep many a goaltender’s face intact, was first worn regularly by Montreal Canadiens player Jaques Plante in 1959. He was at first mocked for wearing the mask, and his coach didn’t like it because he thought it would be a distraction. But once Plante donned the mask, the Canadiens went on to an 18-game winning streak, proving players could perform just as well—if not better—without the threat of a puck to the face. Plante’s equipment innovation is now standard gear for professional and amateur hockey players.

4. Global time zones
You know those clocks that tell you what time it is in cities all around the world? They wouldn’t be possible without Canadian railroad engineer Sandford Fleming. In centuries past, local times were based on the sun, making them all slightly different from place to place. This didn’t matter much until rail travel made a standard system of keeping time across distances much more important. After missing his train and getting stuck on a railway platform due to non-synchronized clocks, Fleming came up with the idea of creating 24 time zones across the entire globe, which would form “international standard time.” In 1884 at the International Meridian Conference in Washington, D.C., he presented his ideas, which were eventually adopted worldwide.

5. Trivial Pursuit
We can thank two Canadian journalists for setting off the quiz trend that’s still going strong today (think of how many online trivia quizzes you’ve taken!). In 1979, Montreal Gazette picture editor Chris Haney and sports journalist Scott Abbott came up with their own game while playing Scrabble. They scraped together a few investors, and after a slow start, Trivial Pursuit became “the biggest phenomenon in game history,” Time magazine reportedly said. Over 100 million copies of the game have been sold, and 50 special editions have been created. Sadly, Haney died in 2010 at the age of 59.

6. Rotary snowplow, or “snowblower”
The first rotary snowplow, which used a spinning mechanism to lift snow and shoot it away, was invented by J.W. Elliott, a Toronto dentist, in 1869. Soon after, Canadian Orange Jull improved the design with a new patent, with that machine first utilized in 1887, pushed by locomotives to clear snow along railways. In 1925, the blower was adapted for trucks by Canadian Arthur Sicard, a milkman tired of climbing over snow to make his deliveries. He called his invention the “Sicard Snow Remover Snowblower.”

7. Snowmobile
Along with clearing snow, Canadians have sought ways to travel over it. Mechanic, inventor, and entrepreneur Joseph-Armand Bombardier sought for years to make the remote areas of Canada, including his isolated hometown of Valcourt, Quebec, more accessible in winter. He actually started working on his project as a teen, but he hadn’t yet perfected his machine so it would really work. Unfortunately, the problem of winter isolation hit very close to home for Bombardier in 1934, when his two-year-old son died from illness because he couldn’t get to a hospital. Bombardier doubled down on his efforts and in 1937 developed the first working snowmobile, which could hold seven people. When rural roads started being cleared more effectively, he switched “gears,” literally, to create a miniature, recreational snowmobile in 1959 he called the Ski-Doo—the same ones outdoor enthusiasts continue to use today.

8. Garbage bag
In the 1950s, Winnipeg’s Harry Wasylyk used the flexible plastic polyethylene to create the first garbage bag, at the request of a local hospital looking for a sanitary way to dispose of waste. At the same time, a couple of other Canadians, Frank Plomp and Larry Hansen, were working on their own version of the plastic garbage bag. But it was Wasylyk’s that came up on top when Union Carbide Company bought his product and manufactured it for home use under the name Glad in the 1960s. In 1971, University of Toronto chemist James Guillet created a more eco-friendly, biodegradable version.

9. McIntosh apples
Maybe the phrase should be, “as Canadian as apple pie,” since that’s where the beloved McIntosh apple originated. In the early 1800s, farmer John McIntosh of Dundela, Ontario, came across apple seedlings growing in an area he was clearing; he replanted them in his garden and all but one died. Recognizing that the taste of the fruit the lone tree bore was something special, he learned how to graft the tree to reproduce the same variety. His son, Allan, began selling them, and a fruit phenomenon was born. The apple variety became so popular that a computer scientist at Apple named their new machine “Macintosh” after it—changing the spelling for copyright reasons. To this day, every single McIntosh apple is descended from that one tree, which fell in 1910. Interested in owning a piece of Canadian history? The original McIntosh farm, now in disrepair, was put up for sale last fall.

10. Yukon Gold potatoes
A much later agricultural creation that also came out of Canada was the Yukon Gold potato, developed by researcher Gary Johnston in 1966 at the University of Guelph, and sold beginning in 1980. The attractive yellow tubers, with thin, edible skin and a moist, buttery texture (even without the butter), were immediately appealing as an alternative to the basic white potato. Johnston and colleagues named the variety “Yukon Gold” after the Yukon River in Canada, with “gold” referencing both the potato’s colour and Canada’s gold-rush history.

11. Walkie-talkie
The invention of the two-way portable radio is usually credited to Canadian Donald Hings, who created what he called a “pack set” in 1937. (Canadian-American Alfred J. Gross came up with a similar design in 1938.) Walkie-talkies, as they came to be known, became crucial to military communications in World War II—and afterward, a staple of children in tree houses everywhere. An early forerunner of cell phones and wireless technology, the invention came full-circle when just last year Apple Watch came out with a “walkie-talkie” feature.

12. Egg carton
This is one of those simple inventions that we can’t imagine living without. As the story goes, newspaper publisher Joseph Coyle of British Columbia overheard an argument about a delivery of broken eggs that had literally all been put in one basket. Thinking there had to be a better way, Coyle came up with the humble beginning of a big idea. In 1911, he crafted a carton of individual slots so the eggs wouldn’t jostle against each other and break in transit. Over a century later, his creation remains largely unchanged.

13. Push-up bra
Although the name “Wonderbra” existed as far back as 1939, a new approach to the undergarment by Quebec designer Louise Poirier in 1963, called the Dream Lift model 1300, featured underwire and a push-up design that created maximum cleavage. The Wonderbra became the quintessential piece of lingerie and created a sensation in the 1990s when it came to the states after being relaunched by an American company. Currently owned by U.S. company Hanes, the Wonderbra brand is still known the world over.

14. Hard cup jock strap
Women aren’t the only ones who can thank Canada for intimate wear. The jockstrap itself may have been invented in the 1870s by an American to keep male parts from bouncing around—but it was a Canadian who came up with the idea for the hard cup, providing protection from, for example, a hockey puck travelling at 100 miles per hour. Athlete and inventor Jack Cartledge of Ontario’s Guelph Elastic Hosiery patented the cup in 1927, calling it the Protex. Although today wearing a cup has fallen out of fashion in sports, the invention is sure to have saved men many a serious injury.

15. Baggage tag
File this one under, “things you probably never thought about—until now.” Without baggage tags, imagine how chaotic storing and then locating your luggage upon arrival would be, whether travelling by train, ship, or plane. In 1882, John Michael Lyons of New Brunswick came up with the “separable” ticket, which would include passenger information and destination, for rail travel. The ticket would be torn in half, with the passenger keeping one piece and the other remaining on the bag—an easy system for keeping track of luggage. This also helped reunite lost luggage with their owners. Later, this system was adopted for air travel as well.

16. Wheelchair-accessible bus
A true Canadian hero, Walter Harris Callow of Nova Scotia suffered a back injury while training for the Royal Flying Corps in World War I and eventually became quadriplegic. Despite his health issues, he created several services to help soldiers and veterans. After World War II, he had a new idea: To create the first wheelchair-accessible bus for injured veterans, and other people who are disabled, in order to keep them social, happy, and active in their communities. He designed and had built two custom buses, later expanding with the help of car manufacturers. His company, Callow Wheelchair Buses, just ceased operation after 71 years.

17. Motorized wheelchair
Canada has made other advances in mobility access for people with disabilities. Although an earlier version may have been invented during World War I, credit for the modern motorized wheelchair is given to Canadian mechanical engineer George Klein. (That’s true, but these historical “facts” everyone believes are actually false!) Thanks to the discovery of penicillin in 1928, World War II soldiers were surviving spinal injuries at a much higher rate than in previous wars—but that also necessitated better mobility options. In the 1950s, Klein and his team at Canada’s National Research Council designed an electric, joystick-operated wheelchair, the first to be mass-produced, improving the lives of countless veterans. His original prototype, formerly in the Smithsonian, is now located at the Canada Science and Technology Museum.

18. Pacemaker
Called the “father of biomedical engineering” by the British Columbia Medical Journal, John Hopps came up with the idea for the pacemaker while researching ways to improve open-heart surgery. He realized an electrical impulse could regulate the heart’s pacing—and even restart it. At the National Research Council in the early 1950s, he created the first external pacemaker, which delivered an electrical pulse through a catheter inserted into the jugular vein. This would pave the way for the implantable pacemaker later on, which Hopps would benefit from himself: He had one implanted in 1984.

19. Green ink for American money
If you’ve ever wondered why American money is green, here’s the reason. The roots of America’s “greenbacks” go back to Canada and the Civil War. In an effort to avert counterfeiting, banks were looking for an ink that couldn’t be easily copied like black could be—especially since counterfeiters often used cameras, which could only take pictures in black and white, to reproduce paper bills. Thomas Sterry Hunt, a professor at Laval University in Quebec, came up with the green colour, called “Canada Bank Note Tint,” in 1857. The United States became a fan of the hue, with the Union using it on its bank notes to fund the Civil War. Afterward, the green colour continued to be used on America’s bills out of tradition.

20. Insulin treatment for diabetes
Insulin had been discovered in 1910, but a decade later in 1921, Canadian doctor Frederick Banting and his assistant, Charles Best, working in JJR Macleod’s lab at the University of Toronto, developed a way to isolate insulin and inject the substance into animals to regulate their blood sugar. This paved the way for the treatment in humans. Banting and Macleod earned the 1923 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their innovation, which to this day allows people with diabetes to better manage the disease.

And that's it for this week and hope you all have a great weekend and for Canadians a Great Canada Day weekend.